Sachin Agarwal’s Blog

Swine influenza (also called Pig influenza, swine flu, hog flu and pig flu) is an infection by any one of several types of swine influenza virus. Swine influenza virus (SIV) or S-OIV (swine-origin influenza virus) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs.[2] As of 2009, the known SIV strains include influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A known as H1N1, H1N2, H3N1, H3N2, and H2N3.

Swine influenza virus is common throughout pig populations worldwide. Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human influenza, often resulting only in the production of antibodies in the blood. If transmission does cause human influenza, it is called zoonotic swine flu. People with regular exposure to pigs are at increased risk of swine flu infection. The meat of an infected animal poses no risk of infection when properly cooked.

During the mid-20th century, identification of influenza subtypes became possible, allowing accurate diagnosis of transmission to humans. Since then, only 50 such transmissions have been confirmed. These strains of swine flu rarely pass from human to human. Symptoms of zoonotic swine flu in humans are similar to those of influenza and of influenza-like illness in general, namely chills, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness and general discomfort.

Classification
Of the three genera of influenza viruses that cause human flu, two also cause influenza in pigs, with influenza A being common in pigs and influenza C being rare. Influenza B has not been reported in pigs. Within influenza A and influenza C, the strains found in pigs and humans are largely distinct, although because of reassortment there have been transfers of genes among strains crossing swine, avian, and human species boundaries.

Influenza C
Influenza C viruses infect both humans and pigs, but do not infect birds. Transmission between pigs and humans have occurred in the past. For example, influenza C caused small outbreaks of a mild form of influenza amongst children in Japan and California. Because of its limited host range and the lack of genetic diversity in influenza C, this form of influenza does not cause pandemics in humans.

Influenza A
Swine influenza is known to be caused by influenza A subtypes H1N1, H1N2, H2N3, H3N1, and H3N2. In pigs, three influenza A virus subtypes (H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2) are the most common strains worldwide.[11 In the United States, the H1N1 subtype was exclusively prevalent among swine populations before 1998; however, since late August 1998, H3N2 subtypes have been isolated from pigs. As of 2004, H3N2 virus isolates in US swine and turkey stocks were triple reassortants, containing genes from human (HA, NA, and PB1), swine (NS, NP, and M), and avian (PB2 and PA) lineages.[12

Surveillance
Although there is no formal national surveillance system in the United States to determine what viruses are circulating in pigs,[13 there is an informal surveillance network in the United States that is part of a world surveillance network.

Veterinary medical pathologist, Tracey McNamara, set up a national disease surveillance system in zoos because the zoos do active disease surveillance and many of the exotic animals housed there have broad susceptibilities. Many species fall below the radar of any federal agencies (including dogs, cats, pet prairie dogs, zoo animals, and urban wildlife), even though they may be important in the early detection of human disease outbreaks.[14 [15

History
Swine influenza was first proposed to be a disease related to human influenza during the 1918 flu pandemic, when pigs became sick at the same time as humans.[16 The first identification of an influenza virus as a cause of disease in pigs occurred about ten years later, in 1930.[17 For the following 60 years, swine influenza strains were almost exclusively H1N1. Then, between 1997 and 2002, new strains of three different subtypes and five different genotypes emerged as causes of influenza among pigs in North America. In 1997–1998, H3N2 strains emerged. These strains, which include genes derived by reassortment from human, swine and avian viruses, have become a major cause of swine influenza in North America. Reassortment between H1N1 and H3N2 produced H1N2. In 1999 in Canada, a strain of H4N6 crossed the species barrier from birds to pigs, but was contained on a single farm.[17

The H1N1 form of swine flu is one of the descendants of the strain that caused the 1918 flu pandemic.[18[19 As well as persisting in pigs, the descendants of the 1918 virus have also circulated in humans through the 20th century, contributing to the normal seasonal epidemics of influenza.[19 However, direct transmission from pigs to humans is rare, with only 12 cases in the U.S. since 2005.[20 Nevertheless, the retention of influenza strains in pigs after these strains have disappeared from the human population might make pigs a reservoir where influenza viruses could persist, later emerging to reinfect humans once human immunity to these strains has waned.[21

Swine flu has been reported numerous times as a zoonosis in humans, usually with limited distribution, rarely with a widespread distribution. Outbreaks in swine are common and cause significant economic losses in industry, primarily by causing stunting and extended time to market. For example, this disease costs the British meat industry about £65 million every year.[22

Social distancing is another tactic. It means staying away from other people who might be infected and can include avoiding large gatherings, spreading out a little at work, or perhaps staying home and lying low if an infection is spreading in a community. Public health and other responsible authorities have action plans which may request or require social distancing actions depending on the severity of the outbreak.

Vaccination
Main article: 2009 flu pandemic vaccine
Vaccines are available for different kinds of swine flu. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the new swine flu vaccine for use in the United States on September 15, 2009.[92 Studies by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), show that a single dose creates enough antibodies to protect against the virus within about 10 days.[92

Treatment
In swine
As swine influenza is rarely fatal to pigs, little treatment beyond rest and supportive care is required.[59 Instead veterinary efforts are focused on preventing the spread of the virus throughout the farm, or to other farms.[11 Vaccination and animal management techniques are most important in these efforts. Antibiotics are also used to treat this disease, which although they have no effect against the influenza virus, do help prevent bacterial pneumonia and other secondary infections in influenza-weakened herds.[59

In humans
If a person becomes sick with swine flu, antiviral drugs can make the illness milder and make the patient feel better faster. They may also prevent serious flu complications. For treatment, antiviral drugs work best if started soon after getting sick (within 2 days of symptoms). Beside antivirals, supportive care at home or in hospital, focuses on controlling fevers, relieving pain and maintaining fluid balance, as well as identifying and treating any secondary infections or other medical problems. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the use of Tamiflu (oseltamivir) or Relenza (zanamivir) for the treatment and/or prevention of infection with swine influenza viruses; however, the majority of people infected with the virus make a full recovery without requiring medical attention or antiviral drugs.[93 The virus isolates in the 2009 outbreak have been found resistant to amantadine and rimantadine.[94

In the U.S., on April 27, 2009, the FDA issued Emergency Use Authorizations to make available Relenza and Tamiflu antiviral drugs to treat the swine influenza virus in cases for which they are currently unapproved. The agency issued these EUAs to allow treatment of patients younger than the current approval allows and to allow the widespread distribution of the drugs, including by non-licensed volunteers.[95

hello friends,

I would like to wish you all the very best for upcoming new year 2010.  I am sure it would be one of the another best year that brings you success and happiness to you. If you guys are planning for new year vacations.. here are some options based on your interest….

if you are recently married and looking for honeymoon holidays abroad, you may choose bahamas,  miami, cancun in mexico would also be the excelent option. here you will surely enjoy your beach holidays.

if you are looking for some excitment like casino and all, las vegas is always here to welcome you.

If you are looking for some family holiday, singapore, bangkok, malaysia travel option is also available. not very expensive and good to be there with the family.

Based on your interest, you can also explore some options on the web.. and for hotels booking you can go to the holiday booking site like

www.disholidays.com – an online holiday booking portal since 7 years….. This should help you in your trip planning…

Cheers to you guys.

IGIGI discontinued the affiliation without information to affiliates

If you really want to grow on the web, affiliates are one of the best options. IGIGI is a clothing merchant that also offers affiliation to the similar sites for women clothing.

We found that there are huge numbers of affiliates suffering due to the affiliation discontinued without prior information to affiliates to de-link the products or so. 

Affiliates are sending huge traffic to IGIGI on daily basis and thinking they will get the commission but seriously there is nothing like affiliation on the IGIGI.

I feel this is really not fair for a site to do this kind of joke with the affiliates.

Wish if the affiliates check their sites in time and protect their user from going on IGIGI in vain.

If you have a plan to discontinue the affiliates, there must be a rule and prior information email to affiliates so that they can plan their site business accordingly.

 Very bad..

Kaboodle.com – Demoting your business…Be aware of this site.. 

Kaboodle.com is treated as one of most popular social shopping site where people especially webmaster comes and add their client website and their product to their favorite list by adding the website url and title and small description and all.

This way webmaster tries to promote their websites through Kaboodle.com BUT did you really check the strategy of Kaboodle.com..?  Who did they use your website copyright content?

Yes you will be shocked if you check the site technology. If you are submitting your client site to promote to Kaboodle.com, I would like to warn you that you are not promoting your site but actually Kaboodle.com is using your entire content available of the submitted url and promoting their own website.

One day I checked my client websites and found that they are submitted in Kaboodle.com by their own users who are actually hired to submit the good sites in their own database so that they can copy the entire content of that website and earn by advertisement on the name of social shopping site.

I found my client multiple site in Kaboodle.com and when I checked them deeply, I found the all sites are totally copied to their site and they are not even willing to remove those content.

I am not sure how come a site can do this cheating with the web media. They are playing with the webmasters feeling that they are promoting their sites but actually Kaboodle.com is demoting your sites but creating your website duplicate pages..

I sent many emails them but they are sleeping and they are not willing to remove the stores..

If you guys are seriously willing to promote your client site.. don’t be a user of this site and check regularly if they have submitted your site themselves, ask them to remove your listings and go for legal penalties if they don’t remove it in time.

We have filled the legally DMCA to Google and waiting for the reply.

Kaboodle.com is a Big fraud…shameful…

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Facing No-admiration wording

 Due to the recent accident happened in Delhi – Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) is really in trouble now days. DMRC is facing no-admiration wordings even after so much is already done by these experts.

DMRC has created intra-rail network in Delhi when we people sleeps, when we people have fun in the home, DMRC workers works all the time 24/7 without having any issues.

 They are working to build a smooth transport for everyone in Delhi. I am not sure why people are creating these accidents like political issues.

 Yes I agree that accidents happened but it is a project of multi-billions dollars and it happens sometime.

 Rather then demoting them, we must come forward and tell everybody that DMRC is really doing a good job and it happens sometime.

 DMRC is also taking these 2 accidents seriously, and Gamon India also has been fined for some money i think. But still DMRC is one of the best company and they have done a great job here in Delhi so I would request everybody not to abuse them but appreciate and expect some good job from DMRC.

Customs duty on bio-diesel reduced.
  
Silver to cost more.
  
Tax to be levied on Law Firms.
  
Textile units to receive tax holiday.
  
LCD TVs to cost less. Custom duty on LCD TVs cut from 10% to 5%.
  
Set-Top Boxes to cost more. Customs duty of 5% on set-top boxes.
  
To extend tax holiday for commercial production of mineral oil and natural gas.
  
Fringe Benefit Tax abolished.
  
Commodity Transaction Tax abolished.
  
Personal income tax exemption hiked by Rs 10,000.
  
No surcharge of 10% on personal income tax.
  
Centralised processing center at Bengalooru to streamline taxation.
  
No change in corporate tax.
  
Increase in exemption slab for senior citizens by Rs 15,000.
  
Fiscal deficit at 6.8% of GDP.
  

Proposes Rs 500 cr for rehabilation of displaced persons of northern and eastern areas of Sri Lanka.

  
Aila Relief proposed at Rs 1,000 crore.
  
Increased allocation for higher education. New IITs to be set up. Rs 2,113 cr for IITs and NITs.
  
Rs 25 cr each for AMU campuses in Murshidabad and Mallapuram.
  
Defence outlay goes up. One lakh dwelling units for paramilitary forces personnel to be constructed.
  
Allowances to para-military forces at par with defence forces. One rank, one pension for ex-servicemen.
  
One rank, one pension for ex-servicemen.
  
Allocation for Commonwealth Games to be raised to Rs 3472 crore
  
Online job exchange to be started with private partnership.
  
Unique ID plan to roll out in 12-18 months.
  
Top people from private sector to be given responsibility of vital national projects.
  
Interest subsidy for home loans up to Rs 1 lakh.
  
All BPL families to be bought under one smart card program.
  
50% of all rural women to be brought into self-help group programmes.
  
Rural mega clusters in Bengal and Rajasthan.
  
To add handloom clusters in West Bengal and Tamil Nadu.
  
75% hike in irrigation projects.
  
Rural Housing: Allocation to Indira Awaas Yojna hiked by 63% to Rs 8,883 cr. Rs 7000 crores for rural electrification scheme.
  
Rs 31,100 crore allocation for NREGA. NREGA gave employment opportunities to more than 4.479 cr households.
  
Rs 100 cr one-time grant to expand banks in non-banking areas.
  
Banks, insurance to stay with Govt. Banking network to be expanded.
  
Expert panel to look into petroleum product pricing. Domestic oil prices must be in sync with global prices.
  
‘Aam Admi’ is the focus of all our programmes and schemes: Pranab
  
Tax system should be such that it shold encourage voluntary compliance.
  
Income Tax forms to be made user-friendly. Saral-II forms to simplify taxation process.
  
Export Credit Guarantee scheme extended till March 2010.
  
Stimulus package to print media extended till December 31.
  
Farmers loan interest to come down to 6%. Interest subvention scheme for farm loans to be manitained.
  
Additional budget allocation for farmers.
  
IIFCL will refinance 60% of commercial bank loans in PPP. IIFCL to look at infrastructure needs.
  
Mumbai flood management allocation hiked to Rs 500 cr.
  
87% rise in urban renewal mission. Housing allocation hiked.
  
Fiscal stimulus at 3.5% of GDP
  
Allocation for NHAI up 23%
  
Trade in goods and services doubled in 2008
  
Job creation hit due to economic slowdown: Pranab
  
Govt took 3 stimulus packages so far. Two worst quarters of the global economic crisis is now behind us: Pranab
  
One budget can not solve all problems: Pranab
  
Foreign capital inflow is important
  
Increased focus on growth and encourage nation’s development
  
Sustain growth rate of 9% for a longer period. Farm sector growth at 4%
  
Union Finance Minsiter begins his speech. This is Pranab Mukherjee’s 4th budget.
  
Cabinet approves Union Budget.

Pakistan Champions really played well the entire world cup and they got the crown. Last year, they have lost the final and India won the T20 world cup 2008 but this time Pakistan seriously did a wonderful job and took the world cup to their country.

Although they have won the game and now they are champion now but i believe that there are teams who could have also proved them as a champion.

India lost the battle in the starting and they were out of the game due to the poor captaincy plus the worst performance by the entire unit of team India.

I hope if they want to play the T20 world cup 2010, team India have to really improve their stamina and skills in the ground instead of having fun with girl friend. Otherwise you people going to loose everything you earn from the game that you are not talking seriously.

Warning to team India………….

T20 world cup – Champions lost the battle

 Team India – T20 champions for the game has lost the battle. Cricket has been a game of money now a day. I am sure in coming era, definitely new cricket concepts will be introduced but do you think that team India will be able to set them up with the new formats.

 It looks like team India is really not capable of wining these games or to be real champions.

 The champions could not make it for the semifinals and back to the country. Do you think, team mates are really caring like we do here on our TV screens? They lose a wicket, we lose a hearth beat. They lose a game, we lose a dream.

 Yuvraj said, they don’t need any practice and they are quite capable of winning these games. Hum…. I can understand Yuvi…… You guys are capable of what….

Money….. Girl friend………….Bike and Luxury Cars………. That’s it… No more cricket you can play.

 Shame on the team India for losing the battle.

 What do you guys think on this….???

  Match Played Win Lost NR RR P
Delhi 10 8 2 0 0.36 16
Chennai 10 6 3 1 1.22 13
Hyderabad 11 6 5 0 0.29 12
Mumbai 11 5 5 1 0.54 11
Rajasthan 11 5 5 1 -0.4 11
Bangalore 11 5 6 0 -0.4 10
Punjab 11 5 6 0 -0.6 10
Kolkata 11 1 9 1 -1 3

Deccan Chargers  (6.5 Out of 10)

Adam Gilchrist   – I believe that he is the only man in the team who has taken the team so far in IPL. A very strong captain. He can turn the table on his own shoulder. 

Andrew Symonds  – My god.. He is not a man; he is the super man Deccan Chargers have in their team. As now he is back in the team so now this is gonna hurt everybody.

 Herschelle Gibbs – He is still good although did not see much from him but still can do good job.

 Chaminda Vaas, Rohit Sharma, Scott Styris are the other 3 good cricketers Deccan Chargers have in the team so they can also do some big jobs here.


  • None
  • deepika: really it is fraud company...i have purchased one mailer server and i had sent emails so many time but sender did'nt received any mail and Mr. Anant s
  • raj: that really true
  • carmel bed and breakfast: Hey where is this city located i hadn't heard about this city.but according to your information it seems like its an awesome place.